How can we design and embed robust, cross-cutting indicators of, and improve our understanding of, human, animal, plant, and environmental health in systems under pressure from climate change?


Human and animal health are closely entwined, often via the environment in which they interact. The COVID-19 pandemic has provided a forceful demonstration of this interaction. Human and animal health is also strongly influenced by the “health” of the environment. These interactions, considered as a system, define the research field, “One Health”.

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